Important Dates in Spanish History
about 1100-1000 BC
Phoenicians began colonizing Spain. Modern cities such as Cádiz
and Málaga were founded by the Phoenicians around this time.
The Carthaginians conquered much of Spain.
Spain became an important part of the Roman Empire following. the Punic Wars
The Visigoths completed their conquest of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Moors conquered most of Spain. Many Spaniards converted to
Islam, and Moorish culture began to flourish.
The Christian reconquest of Spain began.
Aragón and Castile were united under Ferdinand V and Isabella I.
The following year the Spanish Inquisition was established.
The Kingdom of Granada was conquered, ending Moorish rule in Spain.
Christopher Columbus initiated Spanish claims in the Americas, where Spain quickly established a huge colonial empire.
The Kingdom of Navarre was absorbed into the unified Kingdom of
Spain. Spanish culture flourished and Spain became a world power.
The English navy defeated the Spanish Armada, beginning a period
of slow decline for Spain.
Great Britain gained Gibraltar from Spain.
Napoleon I of France invaded Spain and captured Madrid. Spanish,
English, and Portuguese forces did not drive the French from Spain until 1814.
Most of Spain’s American colonies won their independence.
Spain lost the rest of its important overseas possessions following
the Spanish-American War.
King Alfonso XIII fled from Spain, and the country became a republic.
Spanish Nationalist forces led by General Francisco Franco defeated
Republican forces during the Spanish Civil War.
Buoyed by strong economic growth, the government eased censorship
restrictions. Protests erupted in Barcelona and Madrid, and regional separatist groups gained strength.
Franco died and was succeeded by King Juan Carlos. Spain began
the transition to a democratic government.
Spain joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and
the European Community (now the European Union), increasing its ties with the rest of Europe.
The Summer Olympic Games were held in Barcelona.
Spain threatened to block expansion of the European Union until
a compromise guaranteed protection of Spanish fishing rights. Agreements were reached in March and December giving Spain wider